The following two methods are acceptable for an entity to use in accounting for long-term construction-type contracts under U. However, indirect method is required for listed companies and direct method for insurance companies. Although we endeavor to provide accurate and timely information, there can be no guarantee that such information is accurate as of the date it is received or that it will continue to be accurate in the future. So what about international companies? Please see to learn more. This publication includes only those key similarities and differences that in our experience are more commonly encountered in practice in India. No comprehensive guidance on derivatives and biological assets.
Qualitative characteristics Relevance, reliability, comparability and understandability. Revenue is income that arises in the course of ordinary activities of an entity and is referred to by a variety of different names including sales, fees, interest, dividends and royalties. Offset against the related expenditure. Cash is used when a company buys another company for more than the value of its assets. When an entity is unable to estimate reliably the outcome of a contract, it recognizes contract revenue only to the extent of contract costs incurred for which it believes it will be reimbursed.
Concepts Statement 5 only broadly describes the characteristics of, and when to recognize, revenue and is often difficult to apply to specific transactions. That is, revenue is recognized on the basis of the percentage of work completed as of the reporting date. It is recommended that the balance sheet separates current and noncurrent assets and liabilities, and deferred taxes are included with assets and liabilities. For example, a company may elect gross presentation on its balance sheet and net presentation on its income statement. The framework is adopted by publicly traded companies and a maximum number of private companies in the United States.
Deferred income is recorded for the same amount and subsequently recognized in profit or loss systematically as the facility is depreciated. For example, the incremental-cost method may be inappropriate when the value of an award is significant in relation to the overall arrangement. As the two accounting standards continue to converge into a single set of international standards, one will realize that there are many similarities and differences between the methods. Repayments If some, or all, of a government grant becomes repayable e. Example: Grant of a non-monetary asset Government grants land to Company on the condition that Company constructs and operates a manufacturing facility on the land. Entities may present either a classified or non- classified balance sheet.
This publication primarily focuses only on recognition and measurement principles and certain presentation requirements. After initial recognition, government grants are recognized in profit or loss on a systematic basis that mirrors the manner in which the company recognizes the underlying costs for which the grant is intended to compensate. Under the percentage-of-completion method, contract revenue and expenses are recognized as work progresses rather than when the work is complete. They are designed to help investors understand average and for the company. For government grants of a recurring nature, the assessment may be less challenging given historical experience. The primary issue in accounting for revenue is determining when to recognise revenue. The separation of current and noncurrent assets and liabilities is required, and deferred taxes must be shown as a separate line item on the balance sheet.
Income encompasses both revenue and gains. The different methods can be problematic to potential investors in international markets, because it will be difficult to interpret and understand financial information. Moreover, the differences between the two are as per a particular point of time that may get a change in the future. It is only a matter of time before the accounting profession is completely converged into one set of high-quality international standards. The appropriate method for recognizing revenue in such transactions depends on the individual transaction but is usually based on the proportional performance as of the balance sheet date. Government grants are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that: 1 the recipient will comply with the relevant conditions and 2 the grant will be received. This guidance does not apply to arrangements or deliverables that are within the scope of other authoritative literature e.
Because the guidance on incentives and other consideration in U. The issuing organizations of the two are continuously working on their convergence. Because of the specific guidance in U. Development cost Treated as an expense Capitalized, only if certain conditions are satisfied. Thus, entities using the completed-contract method and entities in arrangements with significant change orders may recognize revenue under U. As a result, differences may arise in practice.
Business combinations Types No comprehensive accounting standard on business combinations. The standard is used for the preparation and presentation of the financial statement i. . However, depending on the facts and circumstances of a particular arrangement, the impact of the differences on revenue recognition could be dramatic if separation is deemed inappropriate under U. By separating these items from operating income results, a company can make its net income look better.